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Structure and characteristics of composite insulators

Composite insulator is a kind of special insulator, which is mainly used in aerial overhead distribution lines. It is made of special materials and plays an important role in use. In the use of plastic composite insulators should pay attention to the use of methods and some matters, to prevent aging of insulators, have a certain impact on the equipment, equipment damage effect, no insulation effect.
 
Plastic composite insulator for low voltage overhead distribution lines, using high density polyethylene as the main material, adding anti-aging agent once extrusion molding, can be made of various types of low-voltage insulator according to the different uses of insulators. This kind of porcelain insulator is compared with the traditional, can reduce the cost, convenient construction, improve work efficiency, and its damage rate is almost zero, good performance, strong applicability, safe and reliable, is an ideal insulator with low overhead distribution lines.
 
The plastic composite insulator has relatively good advantage, can show good value in use, improve the efficiency of the project, to ensure the normal construction and implementation, reduce the cost and cost of the project.
 
Composite insulators installed in the transmission line, during operation due to withstand long-term electrical load, sun and rain, hot and cold changes, may be reduced, the insulation resistance of cracking and even breakdown fault on power supply reliability of the potential threat, therefore, the composite insulation detection sub major online. The aging of composite insulators directly threatens the safe operation of power system, which directly affects the security of power system. The aging of insulators especially in sub zero insulator is prone to thermal expansion, resulting in head insulator cracks, causing breakage accidents, and the flashover voltage is low, reducing the insulation level of high-voltage transmission line.
 
Composite insulator insulator refers to the potential distribution of insulator is close to zero or equal to zero insulator in operation. Zero or low value insulator effect (low value and insulation resistance insulator insulators for 0 M ~300M): insulation lines on insulator strings, due to manufacturing defects or the role of the outside world, the insulation performance of insulators will continue to deteriorate when the insulation resistance is low or zero called low value '> or zero value insulator insulator. They has great influence on the operation of the line, according to incomplete statistics, zero value insulator or low proportion in line operation in about porcelain insulator 0.3[%].
 
Development of composite insulators in China
 
The initial insulator is the telegraph insulator.
 
In 1914, a company in Ohio created a disc type suspension insulator, the insulator chain components are very flexible connection, so called hinge insulator.
 
In 1918, Westinghouse has created new needle type insulator, the electric field of insulator than before the insulator should be uniform, so the impact coefficient is not it.
 
In 1921, a German company improved the above insulator, creating a large skirt of the needle insulator. The experimental results show that the insulator can protect the lower skirt without damage during impact flashover.
1924 Swiss Motor Company first created two umbrella skirt insulator, its breakdown voltage is very high, which is the predecessor of rod insulator, known as motorcycle insulator in history.
 
In mid 30s twentieth Century, the researchers also find pieces of toughened glass can be used as a manufacturing high voltage insulator dielectric materials, toughened glass insulators was originally developed in Britain in the British company, after the Second World War, France has mastered the production method of glass insulator. Subsequently, in Italy, the United States and then West Germany also began to produce glass insulators.
Since 1950s, the United States began to study and use of composite insulators, when the main use of epoxy resin pouring structure, generally installed in the outdoor.
 
In late 1960s, emerged from the resin reinforced glass steel mandrel and composite insulator with rubber or fluorine plastics and other polymeric materials for the sheath skirt, and have various industrial lines in more than and 30 countries and regions and test line operation, rated voltage of AC DC 15 ~ 1500kV, 400 ~ 500kV.
 
From 1980s, the application of composite insulators abroad is very rapid. The United States is the earliest and most widely used the use of composite insulators, according to the information, as of the end of 1989, accounting for 20% of the market of composite insulator insulator, composite insulator accounted for 33% of post insulator, composite rod insulator for suspension insulator 15%, using voltage from the AC DC 115 ~ 765kV. To 500kV. Rod suspended composite insulator average running time has 7 years, the longest service life has reached more than 30 years. Of which 78% of users reflect the use of good, 18% of users believe that the use can also be, the user reflects the problem of 4%.
 
In mid 1980s, North America 35kV transmission line and the voltage level of the at least 2 million composite insulators in operation, Germany accumulated operating experience of 150 thousand composite insulators, Switzerland has nearly 200 thousand branches of composite insulators for more than 10 years.
 
According to China's silicone rubber composite insulator application and outlook record: as of 1997, the number of composite insulators hanging in China reached 400 thousand. Another figure mentioned: by the end of 1998, China 35kV-500kV AC transmission line composite insulator usage has reached 600 thousand, and all silicone rubber composite insulator.